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Contributions[ edit ] The German military used the Enigma machine shown here during World War II for communications they wanted kept secret. These contributions include: The start of the " Digital Revolution ", which includes the current Information Age and the Internet.
It also enabled advanced study of the mind, and mapping of the human genome became possible with the Human Genome Project. Algorithmic trading has increased the efficiency and liquidity of financial markets by using artificial intelligence , machine learning , and other statistical and numerical techniques on a large scale. Even films that feature no explicit CGI are usually "filmed" now on digital cameras , or edited or post-processed using a digital video editor.
Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE, as well as software for physical realization of new or modified designs. The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits. There are many applications of AI, some of which can be seen at home, such as robotic vacuum cleaners. It is also present in video games and on the modern battlefield in drones, anti-missile systems, and squad support robots.
Human—computer interaction combines novel algorithms with design strategies that enable rapid human performance, low error rates, ease in learning, and high satisfaction. Researchers use ethnographic observation and automated data collection to understand user needs, then conduct usability tests to refine designs.
Key innovations include the direct manipulation , selectable web links, touchscreen designs, mobile applications, and virtual reality. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Deadlock and starvation free reentrant readers-writers: A case study combining model checking with theorem proving. In Science of Computer Programming Volume Issue 2. February Luc Rutten and Marko van Eekelen.
April This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. Petra Heck. Martijn Klabbers, Marko van Eekelen. A Software Product Certification Model.
In Software Quality Journal. Volume 18, nr 1, March , pp Kesteren, Olha Shkaravska, Marko van Eekelen, Inferring static non-monotonically sized types through testing.
In Rachid Echahed ed. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science.
Volume C. Elsevier, CodeYard: ict-onderwijs in de spirit van Open Source. Jaargang Nummer 4. December Hoon, W. Rutten and M. Barendregt, H. Glauert, J. Kennaway, M. Hartel, L. Hertzberger, M. Scientific Peer Reviewed Publications : ECIS , 15 pages, to appear In: Liu X. ICSOC Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol Vreda Pieterse and Marko Van Eekelen.
Explaining the most probable explanation. How personality diversity influences team performance in student software engineering teams. In: G. Bonfante and G. Moser Eds.
EPTCS , , pp , Vreda Pieterse, Marko van Eekelen. Which are harder? Soft skills or hard skills? In: M. Dal Lago Eds. Towards a virtual bank for evaluating security aspects with focus on user behavior.
Arjan Lamers and Marko van Eekelen. Celesti and P. Local scope 2. Function scope 3. File scope 4. Give example 5 A function can be called or invoked from another function by using its name.
The function name may include a set of actual parameters, enclosed in parentheses separated by commas. For example, 16 Explain call by value with example 5 In the call by value method, the called function creates new variables to store the value of the arguments passed to it.
This method copies the values of actual parameters into the formal parameters, thus the function creates its own copy of arguments and then uses them. The values of these arguments are copied into the newly created variables. Hence, changes or modifications that are made to formal parameters are not reflected in the actual parameters Explain call by reference with example 5 In the call by reference method, the called function arguments formal parameters become alias to the actual parameters in the calling function.
Rules for actual parameters are: 1.
The actual parameters can be passed in the form of constants or variables or expressions to the formal parameters which are of value type. The actual parameters can be passed only as variables to formal parameters of reference type. Explain inline function with example 5 Call statement to a function makes a compiler to jump to the functions and also to jump back to the instruction following the call statement.
This forces the compiler to maintain overheads like STACKS that would save certain special instructions pertaining to function call, return and its arguments. This reduces the speed of program execution.
Hence under certain situations specially, when the functions are small, the compiler replaces the function call statement by its definition ie. This feature is called as inlining of a function technically called as inline function.
An inline function looks like a normal function in the source file but inserts the functions code directly into the calling program.
Inline functions execute faster but require more memory space. The life time of a function scope variable, is the life time of the function block. The scope of formal parameters is function scope. The scope of a file scope variable is the entire program. The life time of a file scope variable is the life time of a program. It is used to refer variables declared at file level. This is helpful only under situations where the local and file scope variables have the same name. Write in brief about types of arrays An array is a collection of variables of the same type that are referenced by a common name Arrays are of two types: 1 One dimensional: comprises of finite homogenous elements.
Ex: float marks; Write a note on array of characters or strings Strings are otherwise called as literals, which are treated as single dimensional array of characters. The declaration of strings is same as numeric array. For example, i. Write a note on gets or write the syntax of gets To treat spaces as part of string literal, then one has to use gets defined in stdio. How can it be declared? A two-dimensional array is an array in which each element is itself an array.
For instance, an array marks   is a table with 3 rows, and 4 columns. The elements are stored either 1. The two parameters required for write function are identifier string characters, and the no. Example: cout.
Otherwise value less than 0. For example, strcmp Abc, Abc returns 0 strcmp Abc, abc returns a value less than 0 strcmp abc, Abc returns a value greater than 0 strcmp can be used to arrange a given set of strings in ascending or descending order Write a note on array of strings with examples An array of strings is a two-dimensional character array.
The size of first index rows determines the number of strings and the size of second index column determines maximum length of each string. A specific character or an element is accessed as day-names   How does an array behave when passed to a function?
Arrays can be passed on as arguments to functions. The actual parameter is passed only by the identifier, ignoring dimensions. Array parameters by default behave like a reference parameter, as the array identifier unlike other identifiers, represents the base address of the array.
Hence, it results in sending an address to the formal parameter like reference parameters. What will be the output of the program? Here, 5. Give example A class is a new way of creating and implementing a user defined data type. Classes provide a method for packing together data of different types. A class is a way to bind the data and its associated functions together.
List the specifications of a class A class specification has two parts: 1 Class declaration 2 Class Function Definitions Write the general form of class declaration General Form Example What is data abstraction? Instruments allowing only selected access of components to objects and to members of other classes is called as Data Abstraction. Data abstraction is achieved through data hiding.
Data hiding provides security to data. List out the four characteristics of member function in program development 1. Several different classes can use the same function name. The membership label will resolve their scope 2. Member functions can access the private data of a class. A non-member function cannot do so.
A member function can call another member function directly, without using the dot operator. This is called as nesting of member functions 4. Objects can also be passed as arguments 5.
The return type of a member function can be of object data type 6. Arrays of variables of type "class" is known as "Array of objects". Define data hiding The members and functions declared under private are not accessible by members outside the class, this is referred to as data hiding. Class comprises of members. Members are further classified as Data Members and Member functions.